Download PDF 1759, La chute de lAmérique française (illustré) (French Edition)

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Il en est sorti America. Ils le sont de droit divin. Surtout si on jette un regard sur sa vie personnelle. Cette prise en charge de l'ordre et de la loi ne date toutefois pas de La Nouvelle-France, pays de cocagne?

Comment la France a t-elle perdu l'Amérique du Nord ? [Questions d'Histoire #04]

Cela semble incroyable. Non seulement tout ce qu'on ne vous a pas dit, mais aussi tout ce que ne vous dira pas l'histoire propagande. Ne dit-on pas Les Quatre Saisons de Provencher?

La résistance, l'éducation et la culture - Persée

Latest boarding. May November First part: from the first embarkation to Trafalgar : it includes 31 embarkations, with a text indicating, for each ship, the detailed account of the navigation and a watercolor representing it. These navigations "to trade", all in the Mediterranean, except two in the Antilles, become from the 18th embarkation squadron sailing in the service of the King, the Republic, then the Emperor, whose first, after a fight against the English, ends with desertion and imprisonment.

The reading of this picturesque and poignant document leaves the impression of a whole life devoted to action: Scarcely arrived and despite all the vicissitudes, Jaubert immediately seeks another ship, as if the ground burns his feet; attitude that is not unlike that of the illustrious Duguay Trouin.

The adventures experienced by Jaubert are innumerable: he finds himself a stowaway on an Italian brigantine; led the Pasha of Constantinople to Crete, the Grand Vizier of Crete to Constantinople, and Greek women from island to island; brings from Algiers to Marseille French slaves captured in Corfu; Loads of Calamata figs, oranges, butter, cheese and wax cattle Skyros? This first part, hectic, ends in , after the 38th navigation, by incarceration "handcuffs and chain neck" Fort Saint-Nicolas of Marseille, then Toulon.

It is illustrated with 31 watercolors, representing with remarkable precision the hulls and rigging of tartanes, boats, brigs, corvettes, bombards, chebecks, seneaux, vessels, brigantines, polacres, boulichous, frigates, schooners, etc It is therefore possible that Degun, talented watercolorist, detained himself on the Ganges, drew the ships that his companion of misfortune described him from preserved notes of his navigations.

The quality of these watercolors is close to the work of the portraitists of ships like "Roux" of Marseille. The variety of ships of all origins on which Jaubert resides constitutes a remarkable source of information on maritime traffic of the time in the Mediterranean, and actors: French, Italian, Spanish, Greek, Arab Jaubert also relates his enlistment on several ships of the "Royal", including the ship Scipio which participates in the Battle of Aboukir in figure the list of French squadron ships. After various embarkations to trade, our sailor will join the French Navy in Jaubert is named gabier of hune on the ship The Formidable, armed with 80 guns, which leaves for Gibraltar to the Antilles, in the squadron of Admiral Villeneuve.

His account relates various adventures of sea and gives the detail of the victorious military operations of the Admiral against the English in Martinique, then in Guadeloupe, as well as made catches.

On the return from Guadeloupe, off the Azores, the ship "takes an English marching ship, a a corsair ditto with a catch of a Spanish merchant ship coming from India loaded with dry goods of the 'Indies and of eight million silver coins we took in tow and the same evening we burn the merchant ship taken English and the privateer who had made the Spanish catch End of June After taking part in the Cape Finisterre naval battle of July 22, , the Formidable October 20 leaves Cadiz and participates in the battle of Trafalgar October 21, which he manages to escape, despite many damage.

The story of the Battle of Trafalgar is extremely rich and provides details of both the course of action and the reasons for the success of the English fleet. It ends with the following remark: "I will not forget to tell you that before starting the last fight, General Dumanoir told us:" let's go and fight my children I will take you to a place where you will be well rested. He was very right because I am in prison in my 9th year without knowing when I will come out.

Thus, on the 3rd of November, Jaubert and all the crew of the Formidable were taken prisoner by the English, and conducted on the pontoon "The Generous" at Plymouth. Following are the detailed tables of the French, Spanish and English fleets with their armament.

Livres reçus

In addition, an ink wash titled "The Formidable taken by the ship Namur November 4, " illustrates the story of the battle. This first part is of a playful style, popular, and without orthographic concern. It is obviously from Jaubert's hand.


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Part 2: Captivity on the pontoons and Dartmoor The stories that follow relate to the conditions of J. Jaubert and his comrades on the Plymouth Pontoons and in the terrible Dartmoor Prison.

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They are illustrated with 3 gouaches representing, first, the three pontoons where Jean Jaubert was a prisoner "The pontoon the generous Captain Lanyon Remained 9 months The pontoon the hector captain The thorn remained 65 months The pontoon the ganges captain the red remained for 27 months " , the second" the Neptune pontoon [The Neptune], Captain Lorence, ", and the last the" Dartmoor prison of war the 25 of May "or, at the foot of the page" the prison of French dartimor guarded by the commander Kotgrave ".

The style and the spelling being more chastised, it is probable that a companion assisted Jaubert in his writing.

November 16, " , sometimes is the spokesperson of all the prisoners of the pontoons, in a classic style, and even literary, with an excellent spelling 2, 4, 5. He goes so far as to compose a poem on the extreme harshness of the conditions of detention 3 , and write a play rather a skit narrating the arrival of the English Roger perhaps the commander of the pontoon " The Cato " in Hell.

This second part constitutes a precious sum of information on the conditions of detention and the life of the French sailors on the pontoons. There are a number of stories about pontoons, sometimes written in a novelistic way, and for the most part published after , the oldest probably being "Sergeant Flavigny's story, or ten years of my captivity on the English pontoons" by L. Chomel , with notes by Louis Garneray, Paris, Nepveu, However, this journal is to our knowledge the only example of manuscript redirected by a prisoner on the spot: As on every ship, the sailors help each other and participate together in the meager distractions of the edge.

Jaubert knows how to tell, Degun draws for him; and a more educated fellow-prisoner writes for him when it is necessary to testify, from his own experience, of the general condition of the prisoners of the English pontoons. Third part: refound freedom. New embarkments. May - November These watercolors are distinguished by the absolute accuracy of the design of the rigging. None of them are signed. The document ends with the story of a quarantine due to the plague, it is likely that the sailor is succumbing to this epidemic Plague epidemic of , , which extended from the Middle East to the Maghreb.

The author, who rightly criticizes the surgeons who contested the epidemic, while the deaths of porter-faix dockers added to those of the sailors, suggests his role during this period: "On the 2nd, eve of St. Black card stock, photographs in transparent individual pockets. A collection of 33 original silver prints of the planet Mars taken by American spacecrafts Mariner 6, 7 and 9 between and Mars has attracted the attention of humanity. In Mesopotamia, in China, they go back more than years. With the appearance of the first astronomical glasses, it is the details that we began to distinguish on the surface of the fourth planet of our solar system.

Astronomers believe they see a world similar to the earth: Ice caps, continents, oceans, changing vegetation with the seasons At the end of the 19th century, the Italian Giovanni Virginio Shiaparelli distinguishes straight lines resembling canals and he mapped them in Continuing his work, the American Percival Lowel , defends the theory of artificial Martian channels. Lowell was convinced of the existence of Martians fighting the drought and desertification of their planet. In the early s, these beliefs are outdated, however the scientific world still considers the possibility of a plant life on the red planet.

The exploration missions of the American Mariner missions will revolutionize our knowledge of Mars. The Mariner program is a series of NASA missions that aim to send spacecrafts to study the three inner planets of the solar system, the closest from the Earth.

Download PDF 1759, La chute de lAmérique française (illustré) (French Edition)

Ten spacecrafts, from Mariner 1 to Mariner 10, are launched between and as appropriate to Mars, Venus and Mercury. The present collection includes 5 photographs taken by Mariner 6, 7 by Mariner 7 and 21 by Mariner 9. On July 14 and 15, , Mariner 4 flew over Mars and made the first 22 images of the planet. These images put an end to many theories of the time by revealing a more lunar than terrestrial surface, no expanse of water and a weak atmosphere.

Launched on February 24, , Mariner 6 is the second mission to reach Mars. She managed to take 75 pictures of Mars during her flyover. Mariner 7, launched March 27, , closely followed Mariner 6, by fulfilling the same objectives. Despite technical problems during her trip, the spacecraft even provides more scientific data than her partner. Mariner 9 is launched on May 30, Its mission is to complete the studies and measurements made by the previous couple, while being the first spacecraft to orbit a planet other than Earth, allowing a long study mission.

Mariner takes photos of the surface with surprising clarity, resolution reaching 1 kilometer. Using her instruments UV, IR, IR radiometer and two cameras , she discovers striking elements of Martian geography such as Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in the solar system, and the huge canyon that will be named Valles Marineris, in honor of the success of the mission.

She allowed to build the vertical profile of its atmosphere. Mariner 9 also analyzed the two natural satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. Our shots of Mariner 6 and 7 include views of the entire planet as well as images of the surface and its many impact craters. The ones of Mariner 9 reveals all of its geography: its mountain ranges, valleys, volcanoes, plains, poles On the back of each shot are printed: the date of the shooting, the name of the spaceship, the distance, the scale and a detailed description of the geographical area.

Despite its aridity unveiled by these images, interest in the red planet has only grown for 50 years. To the spaceships in orbit have succeeded the rovers exploring its surface, and now comes the concrete realization the project of a human exploration of Mars. Paris, Guillyn, New expanded edition of this reference gastronomic book by Menon. Little is known about the author except that he was a gastronomist scholar and published many highly sought-after works.

The author specifies that this guide is for the use of all those involved in house expenses. He lists the recipes according to the seasons and the products meat, fish, vegetables etc , the utensils necessary for their preparation as well as all the specific terms in the kitchen. The explanations are detailed and precise, so that any type of reader can follow without difficulty.